|The History of the Church Diplomacy in Turkey|
As a result of the hostility of the Third French Republic which endured from 1870 to 1940, many religious orders were disbanded in France and few orders could survive because of the governmental pressure. A diplomatic crisis broke out between the Holy See and France. The French ambassador to Rome was recalled and the Papal Nuncio to France was expelled. This crisis affected also the strength of France in Orient, who was the Protector of the Latin Catholics and in a wide coverage, all the Catholic subjects.
During the sultanate of Abdülhamid II, the role of the Apostolic Delegate (representative of the Pope before the diplomatic relations started) was enhanced in front of the Sublime Porte.
Because of this diplomatic crisis between the Holy See and France, there have been serious diplomatic conflicts between the Apostolic Delegate in Istanbul and French ambassadors. It is possible to read these conflicts through the diplomatic archives and correspondences, especially through the recently published documents, which are part of the Vatican Secret Archives. During the pontificate of Pope John XXIII in 1960, the diplomatic relations between the Holy See and Turkey started by the appointment of a Turkish Ambassador to the Holy See and an Apostolic Nuncio to Ankara.
This project is aiming to focus on the challenge of power between France and the Holy See in front of the Sublime Porte for keeping the right of representing and protecting the Catholic Subjects in the 19th and 20th centuries, including the establishment and development of the French Protectorate in the Ottoman lands, its abolishment and the diplomatic attempts of Apostolic Delegates for being recognized by the Turkish authorities as the representative of the Pope for Catholic subjects, until the reciprocal appointment of ambassadors in 1960.
INTRODUCING THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT AND THE SOURCESThe Source and Genre of Vatican Archive Documents
The Genre of Ecclesiastical- Diplomatic CorrespondencesCHAPTER II
THE DEFINITION AND THE CONTENT OF THE RELIGIOUS PROTECTION OF FRANCE IN THE OTTOMAN LANDSUNTIL THE ABOLISHMENT OF CAPITULATIONS IN 1923
The Capitulations which are stipulated with France
The Capitulations of 1536
The Renewal of Capitulations
The Permanent Capitulations of 1740 and Later
The Protection of the Dragomans and Employees of the Religious Institutions – The Question of Berats for Religious Places
The Question of Reconstruction and Repair of Convents and Catholic Institutions
The Support of the Holy See for the Protectorate of France
THE DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE HOLY SEE ACCORDING TO THE VATICAN SECRET ARCHIVES
The Relations between the Apostolic Delegates and the Court of Abdülhamid II
The Relations between the Ottoman Empire, Holy See and France on the Protectorate during and after WWI
The Foundation of the Turkish Republic in 1923 and the Diplomatic Relations Afterwards
THE SITUATION OF THE CATHOLICS AFTERTHE ABOLITION OF CAPITULATIONS
Diplomatic Relations between the Holy See and Turkish Republic from the Treaty of Lausanne to the Arrival of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli in 1935The Apostolic Delegate, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli
The Apostolic Delegates after the leave of Monsignor Roncalli until the Start of the Diplomatic Relations between Turkey and the Holy See
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