Protestant Missionaries to the Jewish Communities of Istanbul, Salonika and Izmir 1820-1914

The book discusses the extensive evangelical, educational, medical and philanthropic activities of three Protestant missionary organizations in Jewish society in Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century up to the First World War. The study concentrates on the three large Jewish communities of Istanbul, Salonika and Izmir. It covers many aspects of Jewish life, such as the legal and social status of Jews in Ottoman Empire, the traditional and modern education, intra-communal bitter disputes, the process of secularization, class affiliation, family life and status of women. The focus of the research is on the missionaries’ achievements and failure. Leah Bornstein Makovetsky emphasizes the Jewish communities response to the missionaries' various activities and examines the ways in which the Jewish leadership fought against any Christian influence on Jewish society in the course of decades in which far-reaching political, social and religious changes have taken place both in the Ottoman Empire and in Ottoman Jewish society. The book shows that protestant missionaries arrived in the Ottoman Empire with firm convictions and grandiose plans, and foremost to lead to conversion of many Jews. At the same time the research considers the question of whether the Protestant mission had any real chance of success in its work among the Jews of Istanbul, Salonika and Izmir. The data and most of the information cited in the book are drawn largely from missionary reports and journals, and from Jewish sources, especially Responsa literature and Jewish Journals.

Satın Al


Künye

Kitabın Adı:

Protestant Missionaries to the Jewish Communities of Istanbul, Salonika and Izmir 1820-1914

Yazar:

Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky

Dizi Adı:

History: 333

Yayın Yılı:

2019

Sayfa:

386

Ebat:

13.5 x 21 cm.

Kağıt:

Enzo 70 gr

Kapak:

Cevdet Mehmet Kösemen

Cilt/Kapak:

250 gr. Mat, Amerikan Bristol, 4 renk

ISBN/Barkod:

978-605-7884-59-6

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1

ACTIVITY OF PROTESTANT MISSIONARY ORGANIZATIONS IN JEWISH SOCIETY IN ISTANBUL, SALONIKA AND IZMIR

Background: Protestant Missionary Organizations and Theological expectations

The Ottoman Empire in Transition and Crisis: 1830-1914

The Ottoman Authorities' Attitude to Missionary Activism

Jewish Attitudes toward the Missionaries; Missionary Hopes, Achievements and Failures

Missionaries who operated in the Jewish community of Istanbul

Missionaries who operated in the Jewish community in Salonika

The missionaries in Izmir

The missionaries in Edirne

Demographic Data, Social Stratification, Economic and spiritual Aspects of the Communities

The Jewish Community of Istanbul

The Jewish Community of Salonika

The Jewish Community of Izmir

The Jewish Community of Edirne

Secularizing Tendencies in the Communities

Funding for Activism and Salaries

Missionary Tactics

CHAPTER 2

JEWISH CONVERSION TO PROTESTANTISM IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE IN THE COMMUNITIES OF ISTANBUL AND IZMIR UNTIL 1856

Introduction

Ottoman authorities' opposition to conversion to Protestant Christianity

Requiring Baptized Jews to Convert to Islam

The Motives and the Social and Economic Status of Converts to Christianity and Those Given Christian Religious Instruction

Steps Taken against Jewish Conversion to Christianity in the 1820-30s

Baptisms in Istanbul

Extent of the Conversion to Christianity in Izmir

Apprehensiveness about Mass Conversion to Christianity in Izmir

The Attitude of the Jewish Community to the Converts: Excommunication Bans, Corporal Punishment and Imprisonment

The Magnitude of the Christianization Achieved by the Protestant Missionary Societies

Repentance for the Baptized and Their Observance of the Precepts of Judaism

Conclusions

CHAPTER 3

JEWISH CONVERSION TO PROTESTANTISM 1856-1914

Introduction

Ottoman Authorities' Opposition to Conversion to Protestant Christianity

Requiring Baptized Jews to Convert to Islam

The Motives and the Social and Economic Status of Converts and Those Given Religious Instruction

The opposition of the Jewish community to Converts to Christianity and its Expressions of Punishment

Apprehensiveness about Mass Conversion to Christianity in Izmir

Conversion Candidates Meeting with Rabbis

The Magnitude of the Christianization Achieved by the Protestant Missionary Societies

The Extent of Christian Conversion Achieved by Missionary Societies in Istanbul

Baptisms by the London Society in Istanbul

Baptisms by the Scottish Missionaries in Istanbul

Magnitude of the Conversion to Christianity in Salonika

Extent of the Conversion to Christianity in Izmir

Baptisms at the London Mission in Izmir

Baptisms at the Scottish Mission in Izmir

Baptisms by the London Mission in Edirne

The Problems Caused by Religious Conversion within the Family

Conclusions

CHAPTER 4

EVANGELISM

Introduction

Spreading Christian Teaching by Means of the Written Word

Schauffler’s Translations of Psalms, the Bible, and the Pentateuch into Ladino – and the Jews’ Response

Ladino Dictionary

Editions of the Ladino Bible by the London Mission and the American and the British Bible Societies’ Activism

Christie’s Ladino Translation of the Bible

Printing of the Bible and the New Testament in Ladino by the Castro Family

The Yiddish Translation of the Bible

Jewish Community Feeling about Christian Printings of the Bible

Missionary Printing Used by Jews

Dissemination of The Old Paths

Book Distributors and the Distribution of Christian Religious Literature

A Bookshop and Book Warehouses

Distribution of Theological Literature

Jewish Opposition to Book Distribution

Mutual Visits, Meetings and Travel, and the Jewish Response

The Mission House in Istanbul, Izmir and Salonika and the Jewish Struggle against Jews’ Participation in Its Ceremonies

Instruction, Classes for Mothers, and Ladies of the Bible

Preaching at the Medical Facility and the Protestant Hospital

Evening Classes, Bible Classes, and Sabbath Lessons at the London and the Scottish Missions

Theological Preaching at the Yeshiva

Evangelism, Education, and Secularization

Meetings between Rabbis and Baptized Missionaries

Activism among the Karaites in Istanbul

Conclusions

CHAPTER 5

THE PROTESTANT SCHOOLS FOR THE JEWS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND FAILURES

Introduction

Missionary Societies' Motives in Education and Their Attitude to Traditional Jewish Schooling

Missionary Schools for the Jews and Jewish struggle against them

American Missionary Schools

London Missionary Schools

Scottish Missionary Schools

Girls' Homes in Istanbul

Background to the registration of Jewish children in Protestant schools

Modern Jewish Schools Founded as a Reaction against Missionary Schools and Missionary Societies' Attitude to the New Jewish Schools

Motifs and Values in Textbooks Used in Christian and Jewish Schools

Conclusions

CHAPTER 6

PHILANTHROPY

Distribution among needy Jews

Assistance in Istanbul at Times of Fires

Assistance at Times of Epidemics in Istanbul

Relief in Izmir in Times of Epidemics, Fires, and Earthquakes

Assistance in Combating Blood Libels in Istanbul, Salonika, and Izmir

Relief for the Poor and for Refugees Following Wars

Conclusions

CHAPTER 7

THE PROTESTANT MEDICAL MISSION IN ISTANBUL AND IZMIR

Introduction

Study of Medicine and Medical Services in Istanbul

Missionary Assistance at Times of Epidemics

Founding Clinics Sponsored by Missionary Societies in Istanbul

Jewish Hospital in Istanbul

Medical Missionary Clinics in Izmir

The Jewish Hospital in Izmir

The Missionary Society Hospital

Beaconsfield Hospital

The Struggle of the Jews against the Medical Mission

Conclusions

CONCLUSIONS

APPENDICES

ALBUM

GLOSSARY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INDEX