Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky is Professor of history at Ariel University, Israel. She published dozens of articles that deal with a variety of subjects relating to the history of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire during the 16th-19th centuries. Her research concentrates especially on community life, religious and political leadership of the Jewish communities, focusing on the Rabbinate and the courts. Other studies she wrote discuss family life, woman status, delinquency in Jewish society, rabbinic literature written in the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam and Christianity among Jewish Ottoman society; Her research also highlights the interaction between Jewish law and Ottoman law and the way in which it was expressed. Much of her research is based on the Responsa literature and archival material. In addition, she composed the following books that were published in Hebrew: An index of the Responsa of Rabbi Shmuel de Medina, with introduction (1979); The court records of "Isur ve-Heter" from Istanbul for the years 1710-1903 (1999); "A City of Sages and Merchants"', the history of the Jews of Aleppo during the years 1492-1800 (2012); Scientific edition of the Responsa book “Beit Dino Shel Shmuel" by Rabbi Shmuel Laniado, 2 Volumes (2016). Her new book Protestant Missionaries to the Jewish Communities of Istanbul, Salonika and Izmir, 1820-1914 will soon be published by Libra.